According to many studies, the Egyptian Sphinx hides even more mysteries than the Great Pyramids. No one knows for sure when and for what purpose this giant sculpture was built.
It is generally accepted that the Sphinx was erected during the construction of the Khafre pyramid. However, in the ancient papyri relating to the construction of the Great Pyramids, there is no mention of him. Moreover, we know that the ancient Egyptians meticulously recorded all the costs associated with the construction of religious buildings, but economic documents related to the construction of the Sphinx have not been found.
In the 5th century BC e. The pyramids of Giza were visited by Herodotus, who described in detail all the details of their construction. He wrote down “everything he saw and heard in Egypt”, but he did not say a word about the Sphinx.
Before Herodotus, Hecateus of Miletus visited Egypt, after him – Strabo. Their records are detailed, but there is no mention of the Sphinx there either. Could the Greeks fail to notice the sculpture 20 meters high and 57 meters wide?
The answer to this riddle can be found in the work of the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder “Natural History”, which mentions that in his time (1st century AD) the Sphinx was once again cleared of the sands applied from the western part of the desert. Indeed, the Sphinx was regularly “liberated” from sand drifts until the 20th century.
Restoration work, which began to be carried out in connection with the emergency state of the Sphinx, began to lead scientists to the idea that the Sphinx may be older than previously thought. To test this, Japanese archaeologists, led by Professor Sakuji Yoshimura, first illuminated the pyramid of Cheops with an echo sounder, and then examined the sculpture in a similar way. Their conclusion struck – the stones of the Sphinx are older than those of the pyramid. It was not about the age of the breed itself, but about the time of its processing.
Later, the Japanese were replaced by a team of hydrologists – their findings also became a sensation. On the sculpture, they found traces of erosion caused by large flows of water. The first assumption that appeared in the press was that in ancient times the bed of the Nile passed in a different place and washed the rock from which the Sphinx was carved.
The guesses of hydrologists are even bolder:
“Erosion is more likely not the traces of the Nile, but the flood – a mighty flood of water.”
Scientists came to the conclusion that the flow of water went from north to south, and the approximate date of the disaster is 8 thousand years BC. e.
British scientists, repeating the hydrological studies of the rock from which the Sphinx is made, pushed back the date of the flood to 12 thousand years BC. e. This is generally consistent with the dating of the Flood, which, according to most scholars, occurred around 8-10 thousand BC. e.
What is wrong with the Sphinx?
The Arab sages, struck by the majesty of the Sphinx, said that the giant is timeless. But over the past millennia, the monument has suffered a lot, and, first of all, the person is to blame for this.
At first, the Mamluks practiced accuracy of shooting at the Sphinx, their initiative was supported by Napoleonic soldiers. One of the rulers of Egypt ordered to beat off the nose of the sculpture, and the British stole a stone beard from the giant and took it to the British Museum.
In 1988, a huge stone block broke away from the Sphinx and fell with a roar. It was weighed and horrified everyone- 350 kg. This fact caused the most serious concern of UNESCO. It was decided to convene a council of representatives of various specialties in order to find out the reasons that destroy the ancient structure.
As a result of a comprehensive examination, scientists discovered hidden and extremely dangerous cracks in the head of the Sphinx, in addition, they found that external cracks sealed with low-quality cement are also dangerous – this creates a threat of rapid erosion. The paws of the Sphinx were in no less deplorable condition.
According to experts, the Sphinx, first of all, is harmed by human culture: the exhaust gases of automobile engines and the acrid smoke of Cairo factories penetrate into the pores of the statue, which gradually destroys it. Scientists say that the Sphinx is seriously ill.
Hundreds of millions of dollars are needed to restore the ancient monument. There is no such money. In the meantime, the Egyptian authorities are restoring the sculpture on their own.
Among the majority of Egyptologists, there is a firm belief that the face of the pharaoh of the IV dynasty Khafre is imprinted in the appearance of the Sphinx. This confidence cannot be shaken by anything – neither by the absence of any evidence of the connection between the sculpture and the pharaoh, nor by the fact that the head of the Sphinx was repeatedly remade.
The well-known expert on the monuments of Giza, Dr. I. Edwards, is convinced that Pharaoh Khafre himself peeps through the Sphinx.
“Although the face of the Sphinx is somewhat mutilated, it still gives us a portrait of Khafre himself,” the scientist concludes.
Interestingly, the body of Khafre himself was never found, and therefore statues are used to compare the Sphinx and the pharaoh. First of all, we are talking about a sculpture carved from black diorite, which is stored in the Cairo Museum – it is on it that the appearance of the Sphinx is verified.
To confirm or deny the identification of the Sphinx with Khafre, a group of independent researchers involved the well-known New York policeman Frank Domingo, who created portraits to identify suspects, in the case. After a few months of work, Domingo concluded:
“These two works of art depict two different faces. The frontal proportions – and in particular the angles and facial protrusions when viewed from the side – convince me that the Sphinx is not Khafre“.
Mother of fear
The Egyptian archaeologist Rudwan Ash-Shamaa believes that the Sphinx has a female couple and it is hidden under a layer of sand. The Great Sphinx is often referred to as the “Father of Fear”. According to the archaeologist, if there is a “Father of fear”, then there must be a “Mother of fear”.
In his reasoning, Al-Shamaa relies on the way of thinking of the ancient Egyptians, who firmly followed the principle of symmetry. In his opinion, the lonely figure of the Sphinx looks very strange.
The surface of the place where, according to the scientist, the second sculpture should be located, rises several meters above the Sphinx. “It is logical to assume that the statue is simply hidden from our eyes under a layer of sand,” Al-Shamaa is convinced.
In support of his theory, the archaeologist gives several arguments. Ash-Shamaa recalls that between the front paws of the Sphinx there is a granite stele, on which two statues are depicted; there is also a limestone tablet that says that one of the statues was struck by lightning and destroyed it.
Chamber of Secrets
In one of the ancient Egyptian treatises, on behalf of the goddess Isis, it is reported that the god Thoth placed in a secret place “holy books” that contain the “secrets of Osiris”, and then cast a spell on this place so that knowledge remained “undiscovered until The sky will not give birth to creatures that will be worthy of this gift.
Some researchers are still confident in the existence of a “secret room”. They remember how Edgar Cayce predicted that one day in Egypt, under the right paw of the Sphinx, a room called the “Hall of Evidence” or “Hall of Chronicles” would be found. The information stored in the “secret room” will tell mankind about a highly developed civilization that existed millions of years ago.
In 1989, a group of Japanese scientists using the radar method discovered a narrow tunnel under the left paw of the Sphinx, leading towards the pyramid of Khafre, and an impressive cavity was found northwest of the Queen’s Chamber. However, the Egyptian authorities did not allow the Japanese to conduct a more detailed study of the underground premises.
Research by American geophysicist Thomas Dobecki showed that under the paws of the Sphinx is a large rectangular chamber. But in 1993, his work was suddenly suspended by local authorities. Since that time, the Egyptian government officially forbids geological or seismological research around the Sphinx.